Wednesday, December 21, 2011

Virginia Henderson's Nursing Theory - Need Theory

Virginia Henderson Biography

Virginia Henderson was born on November 30, 1897 in Kansas City, Missouri, and was the fifth of eight children in her family.

In 1921, Henderson graduated from the Army School of Nursing at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C. In 1932, she earned her Bachelor's Degree and in 1934 earned her Master's Degree in Nursing Education, both from Teachers College at Columbia University.

Henderson died on March 19, 1996.

Army School of Nursing, Washington, D.C., 1921
  • First full-time nursing instructor in Virginia
  • Recipient of the Virginia Historical Nurse Leader Award
  • Member of the American Nurses Association Hall of Fame
  • Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing
  • Authored one of the most widely used definitions of nursing
  • Proposed plan to create districts within the Graduate Nurses Association of Virginia (now Virginia Nurses Association)
Virginia Henderson

Virginia Henderson's Nursing Theory - Need Theory

Virginia Henderson categorized nursing activities into fourteen components based on human needs. The fourteen components of Henderson's concept are as follows:
  1. Breathe normally. Eat and drink adequately.
  2. Eliminate body wastes.
  3. Move and maintain desirable postures.
  4. Sleep and rest.
  5. Select suitable clothes-dress and undress.
  6. Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying environment
  7. Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument
  8. Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others.
  9. Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions.
  10. Worship according to one’s faith.
  11. Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment.
  12. Play or participate in various forms of recreation.
  13. Learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities.
The first 9 components are physiological. The tenth and fourteenth are psychological aspects of communicating and learning The eleventh component is spiritual and moral The twelfth and thirteenth components are sociologically oriented to occupation and recreation.

Virginia Henderson's Nursing Theory - Need Theory

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